Topic outline

  • AP Statistics Information

    AP Statistics

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  • Chapters 1 and 2

    The Role of Statistics
    The Data Analysis Process Collecting Data Sensibly

    10 days

    WORD LIST:
    Categorical Data, Numerical Data, Discrete, Continuous, Observational, Random Sample, Stratified Sampling, Confounding Variable, Response Bias, Selection Bias, Experiment, Extraneous Factor, Blocking, Randomization, Placebo

    Chapter 1 Unit Question
    Why Study Statistics?

     I.  Why should people understand statistics?
    II.  What is meant by Variability in data?
    III. What is the data analysis process? What are the six steps in conducting an effective study?
    IV. Is all data the same and how can it be displayed graphically?

    What do I remember from previous units on statistcs and Why is statistics becoming a component of a well rounded education?
    What types of data exist and how can that data be collected reasonably?

    Chapter 2 Unit Question
    What do we need to know before beginning to collect data?
    Essential Questions:
    2-1  What is the difference between an observational study and an experiment?
    2-2  What considerations need to be made in sampling? 
    2-3  What is a comparative experiment?
    2-4  What can be done to enhance the experimental design?

     

    Homework Chapter 1

    Read pgs 1 to 7  answer 1-4 on pg 8
    Read pg 9-13
    Pg  16-22  12, 14, 18, 19, 22, 25 (extending), 27

    Homework Chapter 2

    Pg 33-35       1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11
    Pg 43-46     15, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29
    Pg 59-61      33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40
    Pg 64-66     53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59

  • Chapter 3

    Graphical Methods for Describing Data

    WORD LIST:
    Frequency Distribution, Bar Chart, Pie Chart, Dotplot, Stem and Leaf Display, Histogram, Histogram Shapes

    Unit Question
    In What ways can data be described to properly convey its meaning?
    Essential Questions:
    3.1 How can you display categorical data?
     What is a frequency distribution?
    What are bar charts?
    What is a pie chart and how is it made?
    3.2 How can you display numerical data?
     What is a dot plot?
    What is a stem and leaf plot?
    3.3 What other methods exist to display numerical data?
     What is a frequency distribution?
    What is a histogram?
    3.4 How can you interpret the results of statistical analyses?
     What is looked for in published text?

    Homework
    Page 88-91      2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14

    Page 96-99      16, 17, 20, 21

    Page 115-119   23 (1st class 25 to 30),  25,  28,  32 (1st class 10 to 12), 36

    Page 124-127   38, 39, 40, 41, 45

    Page 135-143   46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 62, 70

     

  • Chapter 4

    Numerical Methods for Describing Data

    WORD LIST:
    Sample Mean, Population Mean, Sample Median, Trimmed Mean, Deviation, Sample Variance, Standard Deviation, Population Variance, Population, Standard Deviation, Quartiles, IQR, Chebyshev's Rule, Empirical Rule, z-score, nth Percentile, Boxplot

    Unit Question
    How can large sets of data be summarized for interpretation and comparative purposes?
    Essential Questions
    4.1 What is the center of a data set and how can it be found?
                 What is a sample mean?
                 What is the population mean?
                 What is the sample and the population median?
                 What is the trimmed mean?
    4.2 What is data variablitiy and how is it used to determine Standard Deviation?
                 What is a deviation?
                 What is the variance and how is it determined?
                 What is the IQR and how is it found?
    4.3 How can single variable data be summarized in graphical format?
                 What is a boxplot?
                 What is an outlier and how is it found?
                 What is an extreme outlier and how is it found? 
                 What is a modified boxplot?
    4.4 What determinations can be made about the center of a data set?
                 How is Chebyshev's rule applied to data sets?
                 When is it appropriate to use the empirical rule?
                 How do you determine z scores from a data set?

    Homework
    Pg 160 - 163         2, 5, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    Pg 169 - 171        17 by hand, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31
    Pg 176 - 178        32, 33, 36, 37
    Pg 184 - 186        39, 41, 43, 48. 51 (1st interval 0≤ x < 2)
    Pg 190 - 195        53, 54, 58, 60, 61, 64, 64, 66, 70, 73

     

  • Chapter 5

    Summarizing Bivariate Data

    WORD LIST:
    Scatter Plot, Pearsons Correlation Coefficient, Spearmans Correlation Coefficient, Least Squares, Residuals, Total Sum of Squares, Coefficient of Determination, Transformation

    Unit Question
    What graphical methods can be used to represent bivariate data and how can the strength of the relationship be analyzed? 
    Essential Questions:
    5.1 What is a scatter plot and what can be determined from it? 
          What is a scatter plot? 
          What is bivariate data? 
           How is a scatter plot constructed?
          What is meant by correlation?
         What is and how do you find Pearsons Correlation Coefficient?
         What is and how do you find Spearmans Correlation Coefficient?
    5.2 How do you fit a line to linear data?
         What is the least squares line and how do you find it?
         Is this the same line as the calculators linear regression line?
    5.3 How do you assess how well a line fits the data?
         What is a residual?
         What is a residual plot?
         What is the coefficient of determination and how is it found?
         What is the standard deviation about the least squares line and how is it found?
    5.4 How are non linear relationships explained?
         What is a polynomial regression?
         How do you fit a polynomial regression to data?

    Homework
    Page 210-214    1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13
    Page 221-224    14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23,
              Day 2           24
    Page 239-244    29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 41, 42
    Page 260-262    45, 48
              Day 2           50
    Page 270-273     55, 56, 57, 60
                                    G1  G2 G3 G4
                    For each:
                                    Construct a scatterplot
                                    find the least squares line
                                    Is there a linear relationship
                                    Find r
                                    State the meaning of the line of best fit in the context of the problem
                                    Is it reasonable to state that x caused y
                                    Plot the residuals
                                    Find a transformation if necessary or state why it is not
    Day 2 worksheet
    Day 3 Open Ended

     

  • Chapter 6

    Probability

    WORD LIST:
    Chance Experiment, Sample Space, Event, Simple Event, Disjoint Events, Basic Properties of Probability, Independent Events.

    Unit Question
    How is probability calculated and how does it relate to statistics?
    Essential Questions
    6-1 What is a chance experiment and how can those chances be represented?
               What is a chance experiment? What is a sample space? What is an event?
               What is the difference between disjoint and mutually exclusive?
    6-2 What is probability?
               What is the definition of probability and how is it found?
               What is the relative frequency approach? What is the subjective approach?
               How are probabilities determined?
    6-3 What are some basic properties of probabilities?
              What is the range of all probabilities? What is the addition rule for disjoint events?
              How is probability calculated when events are equally likely?
    6-4 What is a conditional probability and how is it found?
             What is conditional probability? How is a conditional probability written?
             What is the formula for a conditional probability?
    6-5 What are independent events and how are their probabilities found?
              What is meant for two events to be independent?
              How is the probability of independent events calculated?
              How is the probability of dependent events calculated?
    6-6 What are some basic or general probability rules?
              What is the general addition rule for two events?
              What is the general multiplication rule?
              What is the law of total probability?
              What is Bayes Rule?
    6-7 How do you accurately estimate probabilities?
              How are probabilities estimated empirically?
              How are probabilities estimated using simulation?

    Homework
    Pg 289-291  3, 5, 8, 9, 10 do not do pt e, 11, 12
    Pg 302-305  16, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29
    Pg 311-315  30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 42
    Pg 321-324  43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 54, 55
    Pg 332-336  59, 61, 63, 66, 67, 73, 74 (like 73 but then compare)
    Pg 344-346  78, 81, 82, 84
    Pg 349-351  87, 88, 92, 93, 95, 98, 101, 102

     

  • Chapter 7


    Random Variables and Probability Distributions

    WORD LIST:
    Random Variable, Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable, Probability Distribution of a Continuous Random Variable, Binomial Probability Distribution, Normal Distribution, Standard Normal Distribution, Critical z-Value, Normal Probability Plot, Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution.

    Unit Question
    How do random variables assist in the calculation of complex probability problems?
    Essential Questions:
    7-1 What type of random variables exist?
                What is a random variable?
                What is a discrete variable?
                What is a continuous variable?
    7-2 What is the probability distribution for discrete random variables?
                What is the probability distribution?
                How do you find it?
                What properties do discrete probability distributions have?
    7-3 What is the probability distribution for continuous random variables?
                 What is the probability?
                 What is a density function?
                What is a density curve?
    7-4 What is the mean and the standard deviation of a random variable?
                What is the mean of a random variable?
                What is the standard deviation of a random variable?
                What is the expected value?
                What is the variance?
                What is the mean and the variance for a linear combination?
    7-5 What is the binomial and geometric distribution?
                 What is a binomial distribution?
                 How do you find it?
                 What is the mean and the standard deviation of such a distribution?
    7-6 What is a normal distribution?
                 What is a standard normal distribution?
                 How are tables used to find this?
    7-7 How do you check and normalize transformations?
                 What is a normal probability plot?
                 How do you select a transformation?

    —  Homework
    Pg 356             1, 5, 7
    Pg 361             9, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19
    Pg 366-367      20, 22, 23, 24, 26
    Pg 378-379      27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 37
    Pg  390-392     44, 48, 49, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 61
    Pg 406-409      64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 75
    Pg 415-418      84 SHOW ALL WORK
    Pg 426-429      106, 107, 108, 110, 114, 119, 121, 124

     

  • Midterm Review Information

     

  • Chapter 8

    Sampling Variability and Sampling distributions

    WORD LIST:
    Statistic, Sampling Distribution, sampling distribution of the sample mean, central limit theorem, sampling distribution of p.

    Unit Question
    What is a sampling distribution and why is it used?
    Essential Questions:
    8-1 How are statistics and sampling variability related?
    What is a statistic?
    What is sampling variability?
    What is a sampling distribution?
    8-2 What is the sampling distribution of a sample mean?
    What are the general properties of the sampling distribution of the sample mean?
    What is the central limit theorem and how is it applied to data?
    8-3 What is the sampling distribution of a sample proportion?
    What are the general properties of the sampling distribution?

    Homework
    Pg 441-442            1, 2, 3, 6, 9
    Pg 450 to 452        10, 11, 13, 16, 19, 22
    Pg 456-457            23, 24, 25, 28, 31
    Pg 459-460            32, 34, 35, 36

  • Chapter 9

    Estimation Using a Single Sample

    WORD LIST:
    point estimate, unbiased statistic, confidence interval, confidence level, t value

    Unit Question
    How can a sampling distribution be used to accurately present the characteristics of a population?
    Essential Questions:
    9-1 What is point estimation and how is it used as a statistic
              What is a point estimate?
              What is an unbiased statistic?
              What is a bias statistic?
    9-2 What is a large sample confidence interval for a population proportion and how is it found?
              What is a confidence interval?
              What is a confidence level?
              How do you find the confidence intervals?
              What is standard error?
              What is the bound on error?
    9-3 What is the confidence interval for a population mean and how is it found?
             What is the one sample z confidence interval for mu?
             What is a t distribution?
             What is the one sample t confidence interval for mu?
    9-4 How do you interpret the results of a statistical analyses?
            What do you look for in published data?

    Homework
    Pg  466-467                   the evens
    Pg  476-479                   10, 11, 12 (a, f, g), 14, 16, 17, 18, 22, 25, 32
    Pg  489-492                   34, 35 a & b, 36, 37, 40, 41, 43, 48, 51
    Pg  500-502                            all

  • Chapter 10

    Hypothesis Testing Using a Single Sample

    WORD LIST:
    Point Estimate, Unbiased Statistic, Confidence Interval, Confidence Level, T-chart, Critical t-Value

    Unit Question
    What is the process that determines whether or not your hypothesis regarding data is an accurate one?
    Essential Question
    10-1 What is the Hypotheses and Test Procedures for an event?
           What is a test hypotheses?
           What is a null hypothesis?
           What is the alternative hypothesis?
    10-2 What types of errors exist in hypothesis testing?
           What is a type 1 error?
           What is a type 2 error?
           What is a significance level?
    10-3 What is a large sample hypothesis test for a population proportion?
           What is a test statistic?
           What is and how do you find the p-value or observed significance level?
    10-4 What is the hypothesis test for a population mean?
           What is the upper tailed test?
           What is the lower tailed test?
           What is the two tailed test?
           What is statistically significant when conducting a test?
    10-5 What is the power and the probability of type II error?
           What is the power of a test?
           What factors effect the power of a test?
    10-6 How do you interpret the results of statistical analyses?
           What do you look for in published data?

    • Homework
      Pg  509 – 510                1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8
      Pg  513-516                   12, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22
      Pg  526-528                    25, 26, 27, 37, 38, 39, 40
      Pg  536-539                   42, 44, 47, 48, 52, 55, 56, 57  (show the work)
      Pg  547-548                   60, 61, 63 show all work
      pg  553-555                   68 to 82 even

     

  • Chapter 11

    Comparing Two Populations or Treatments

    WORD LIST:
    Independent Samples, Paired Samples, Degrees of Freedom, Rank-Sum

    Unit Question
    How can the data from two independent populations or treatments be evaluated so as to determine causation?
    Essential Questions
    11-1 What process is used to compare two means and determine results from them?
            What notation is used? 
            What are the properties of the sampling distribution? 
            What is the two sample t test?
            What is the two sample t confidence interval?
    11-2 What can be said about two populations using the concept of paired samples?
            What is the paired t test for comparing two population means?
             What is a paired confidence interval for mu?
    11-3 What is a large sample inference concerning a difference between two population proportions?
           What notation is used?
           What properties are utilized for two sample proportions?
           What is the large sample z test?
    11-5 How do you interpret the results of statistical analyses?
           What factors are important?

    Homework
    Pg 575-579              4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18
    Pg 589-593              23, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36
    Pg 601-605              38, 40, 42, 46 for tomorrow  
    Pg 611-616              62 to 82 even  skip 68

  • Chapter 12

    The Analysis of Categorical Data and Goodness of Fit Tests

    10 days

    WORD LIST:
    Chi-Squared Tests, Goodness of Fit, Homogeneity, Independence

    Unit Question
    What tests can be used to determine conclusions about categorical data and what conditions or assumptions must be present?
    Essential Questions
    12-1 What is, when is, and how is a chi squared test used for univariate categorical data?
               What notation is used?
               What is the test statistic? How is the test statistic calculated by hand?
               How is the test statistic calculated by calculator?
               How is the p value determined?
    12-2 What is homogeneity and how can it be tested for independence in a two way table?
              What is a margin total? 
              What is a two way frequency table?
              What is a contingency table?
              How do you determine the expected cell count?
              How do you compare two or more populations using the chi square test?
    12-3 How do you interpret the results of statistical data?
              What do you look for in published data?

    Homework:

    • Pg 632-635   1, 3, 5, 6, 9
    • Pg 645-50   14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 24
    •  Pg 655-57  evens  36 to 44



  • Topic 14

    Project Information
    20 days

    Unit Essential Question:
    How can strategies be applied to design observations or experiments and accurately present conclusions through statistical analysis?

  • Topic 15

    Items for other projects